The theory of management
Frederick Winslow Taylor.
Scientific management, or in English is called scientific management, was first popularized by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his book Principles of Scientific Management in 1911. In his book, Taylor describes the scientific management is “the use of scientific methods to determine the best way to get the job done. Some authors such as Stephen Robbins thinks of this book as lahirya of modern management theory.
The idea of using the scientific method came when he was less satisfied with the workers at the company ketidakefesiena it appears because they use a variety of different techniques for the same job, almost no labor standards thereIn addition, workers tend to think of an easy job. Taylor Taylor argued that the results of those workers only one-third of it should be Taylor then, for 20 years, trying hard to correct this situation by applying scientific methods to find a “best technique” in completing each job.
Based on that experience, he makes a clear guidelines on how to improve production efficiency. Pedoman tersebut adalah: These guidelines are:
- Kembangkanlah suatu ilmu bagi tiap-tiap unsur pekerjaan seseorang, yang akan menggantikan metode lama yang bersifat untung-untungan. Develop a science for each element of one’s work, which will replace the old methods are chancy.
- Secara ilmiah, pilihlah dan kemudian latihlah, ajarilah, atau kembangkanlah pekerja tersebut. Scientifically select and then train, teach, or develop these workers.
- Bekerja samalah secara sungguh-sungguh dengan para pekerja untuk menjamin bahwa semua pekerjaan dilaksanakan sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip ilmu yang telah dikembangkan tadi. Work seriously with workers to ensure that all work carried out in accordance with the principles of science that have been developed earlier.
- Bagilah pekerjaan dan tanggung jawab secara hampir merata antara manajemen dan para pekerja. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Manajemen mengambil alih semua pekerjaan yang lebih sesuai baginya daripada bagi para pekerja. Management took over all the jobs that are better suited for him than for workers.
These guidelines changed drastically when the management paradigms Taylor If workers choose their own before their employment and their best practice, must choose a job and train him. Management also advised to take a job that does not fit with the workers, particularly the planning, organizing, mobilization, and control.This is different from previous thinking in which pekerjalah who do the job.