The manager is someone who works through others to coordinate their activities to achieve the target organization.

Pyramid of the number of employees in organizations with traditional structures, based on the level.

In the traditional structured organizations, managers are often grouped into the top managers, middle managers and first line managers (usually described by the form of a pyramid, where a larger number of employees at the bottom than the top). Here is a level managers from bottom to top:

  • first line (first-line management), also known as operations management terms, is the lowest level of management in charge and supervise non-managerial employees involved in the production process. They are often referred to a supervisor (supervisor), shift manager, area manager, office manager, department manager, or foreman (foreman).
  • Middle-management level (middle management), includes all the management was among the first-line managers and top management and served as a liaison between the two.Positions, including middle managers including the head of department, project leader, plant manager, or division manager.
  • Manajemen puncak ( top management ) , dikenal pula dengan istilah executive officer . Top management (top management), known also by the term executive officer. Duty to plan activities and general corporate strategy and directing the course of the company.  CEO ( Chief Executive Officer ), CIO ( Chief Information Officer ), dan CFO ( Chief Financial Officer ). Examples of top management is the CEO (Chief Executive Officer), CIO (Chief Information Officer), and the CFO (Chief Financial Officer).

The role of manager

Henry MintzbergHenry Mintzberg, a management science research specialist, suggested that there were ten roles played by managers in the workplace.He later tenth mengelompokan role into three groups, namely:

  1. Interpersonal Roles
  2. The role of decision-making

Skills Managers

Robert L.Robert L.Katz1970-anKatz in the 1970s suggested that every manager needs at least three basic skills. Ketiga keterampilan tersebut adalah: These three skills are:

  1. Conceptual skills (conceptional skills)
    Top-level managers (top manager) must have the skills to create concepts, ideas, and ideas for the progress of the organization. Idea or ideas and concepts are then to be translated into a plan of activities to realize the idea or concept. The process of translation of ideas into a concrete work plan that is usually referred to as the planning process or planning. Therefore, skills, conceptual skills meruipakan also to make the work plan.
  2. Skills relate to others (humanity skill)
    In addition, conceptual skills, managers also need to be equipped with communication skills or skills relating to other people, also known as human skills.Persuasive communication should always be created by managers to subordinates they lead. With a persuasive communication, friendly, and fatherly will make employees feel valued and then they will be open to the employer.Communication skills required, both at the level of top management, middle, or bottom.
  3. Technical skills (technical skills)
    This skill is generally a stock for managers at lower levels.This technical skill is the ability to perform a specific job, such as using a computer program, fix the engine, making chairs, accounting and others.
  1. Time management skills
  2. Keterampilan membuat keputusan Decision-making skills

Managerial Ethics

The main article for this section are: ethics managerial

Managerial ethics is the standard that guides the behavior of managers in their work.There are three categories of classification according to Ricky W. Griffin:

  • Behavior of employees
  • Behavior of the organization
  • Behavior of other economic agents

Field management

Leadership and Management

leadership is the art of empowerment, is the highest Leadership differs from management, although it can be done by the same person. Pastor The parish priest is the leader and manager of the institution as well organized called the parish (cf. Kan 519). Pastor Paroki sebagai manajer adalah orang yang melakukan hal-hal pastoral dengan benar. Parish priest as managers are people who do things right pastoral. Meanwhile, as a leader he did things right. As the leader of the priest dealing with the efforts to deal with changes caused by age. Oleh karena itu. Therefore, the priest should carry out the pattern of managerial policies to deal with the complexity of the parish.Because it is also in the priest must have a focus on pastoral work in accordance with the vision and control of parish pastoral work of the design. Example: the school is to educate children to be smart but if we get bad leaders, we will get a bad education, too. A leader is the architect and the manager is the builder leadership in creating a shared vision is the management and the design work and dealing with the control function (control). As a leader arranged for the priest or the faithful of the parish pastoral council or chairman-environmental area, have a desire to do what must be done in accordance with their functions and positions respectively. Meanwhile, as the priest manager arranged for the faithful to do what needs to be done. As manager of the priest giving the command, the command through the communicative leadership. The parish priest’s leadership should be liberating and empowering, while as a manager oversees the priest, to control whether the faithful carrying out activities in accordance with proggram work, and vision Parish.

Louis Allen Parish Management based on the theory of Louis Allen

Planning , Organizing , Leading , Controlling .In the professional management theory by Louis Allen have 4 basic steps that require attention: Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling. Mutatis mutandis to manage the parish as a spiritual institution communio Christian believers organized, Louis Allen’s theory would be used: This is a four-step management work of Louis Allen’s classification can be applied in the management of the Parish:

(1). Planning (predetermining a course of action): The parish pastoral work must have a plan (planning). Planning is a planning to answer (the exit) on the issues contained in the Parish of both internal and external.( work planning ). Planning includes strategic planning (strategic planning) and planning work (work planning). A good parish has a clear strategic plan for 3-5 years for example. Planning work was formulated through workshops to menjawabi issues (Pastoral needs) of the faithful in the parish. Pastoral Planning becomes a mature pastoral planning and accurate if you have a problem menjawabi (basic needs) of the faithful in the parish.So before making planning studies should be conducted (social analysis) to determine the root of the problem faced by the faithful both internal and external parish. This step is a professional pastoral work based on the data, not assumptions. Professional pastoral work is determined by the data and accurate processing Therefore, it was time priest to work in a professional by using aids such as management science.

(2). Organizing (arranging and relating work to be done so that people can perform it effectively) : setelah melalui langkah planning ( strategic planning dan work planning ) dalam karya pastoral paroki, langkah lebih lanjut adalah mengorganisir dengan membentuk tim kerja sehingga perencanaan dapat dikerjakan secara efektif dan efisien.

(2). Organizing (Arranging and Relating work to be done so that people can perform it effectively): after the step planning (strategic planning and work planning) in parish pastoral work, further steps are organized by forming a planning team so that work can be Working effectively and efficiently. In the planning administration team of pastoral work that should be involved all stakeholders in the Parish as Parish Pastoral Council, Chairman and Chief Environmental Area, the community leaders, chairman of categorical organization, and chairman and other Catholic organizations. The point is that all interested parties (stakeholders parish) was a pastoral activities, was responsible for planning had been decided together.

(3). Leading (deciding and influencing people to take effective action) : langkah ketiga dalam manajemen pastoral yakni leading . Leading merupakan langkah karya pastoral dengan memberikan petunjuk, motivasi dan inspirasi dari Pastor Paroki kepada umat beriman (tim karya pastoral). Leading adalah tahapan penting, karena di dalamnya terdapat fungsi animasi, motivasi, dan pengambilan keputusan atas kegiatan pastoral yang sedang dilakukan.

(3). Leading (deciding and Influencing people to take effective action): The third step in the leading pastoral management. Leading the pastoral work step by providing guidance, motivation and inspiration from the priest to the faithful (the pastoral work of the team). Leading the important stage, because in it there is an animation function, motivation, and decision-making on pastoral activities are carried out.The parish priest should be actively involved in this step, so that the faithful can work effectively carry out pastoral programs, motivated to do things right and do it right.

(4). Controlling (assesing and regulating work in progress and to assess the result secured): The last step is also important in pastoral management is controlling. Controlling the supervisory duties of a management leader, assess and manage work to achieve work goals can be developed and achieved.In this supervisory function are indicators that can measure whether the implementation of our pastoral work is reached or not, what barriers are and how progress reportnya.So here is needed as well as the contents of the evaluation function of controlling the implementation.

Working professionally

Being a good priest and worked in a professional’s dream to become reality. The parish priest who worked amateurs will not produce the optimal work.Many people longed for a priest as a priest a good shepherd, leader and manager of the community of believers, giving priority to service and professional work.These are the demands not only from the faithful but also the demands of canon law


  • Griffin, R. Griffin, R. 2006. Business, 8th Edition . 2006. Business, 8th Edition. NJ: Prentice Hall. NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Robbins, Stephen dan Mary coulter. Robbins, Stephen and Mary Coulter. 2007. Management, 8th Edition . 2007. Management, 8th Edition. NJ: Prentice Hall. NJ: Prentice Hall.
  1. ^ (en) Online Etymology: Manage ^ (En) Online Etymology: Manage
  2. ^ CS George Jr. ^ CS George Jr.. 1972. The History or Management Thought , ed. 1972. The History or Management Thought, ed. 2nd. 2nd. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall. Prentice Hall. h.4 h.4
  3. ^ ibid. ^ Ibid. h.35—41 h.35-41
  4. ^ Stephen Robbins dan Mary Coulter. ^ Stephen Robbins and Mary Coulter. 2007. Management , 8th Edition. 2007. Management, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
  5. ^ Griffin. ^ Griffin. 2006. Business 8th Edition . 2006. Business 8th Edition.
  6. ^ Griffin. ^ Griffin. 2006. Business 8th Edition . 2006. Business 8th Edition.

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